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HAMIL DI LUAR NIKAH DALAM PERTUNJUKAN WAYANG JOBLAR


Oleh : GEDE YOGA KHARISMA PRADANA | -
Bidang Ilmu : Kajian Budaya | Tahun Penelitian : 2012



ABSTRAK

“Hamil di Luar Nikah Dalam Pertunjukan Wayang Joblar”, merupakan sebuah dakwah yang diungkapkan melalui media seni pertunjukan wayang kulit inovasi sebagai representasi empati dalang terhadap maraknya fenomena sosial hamil di luar nikah di Kota Denpasar yang dibahas dengan mempergunakan metode kualitatif dan dianalisis dengan teori dekonstruksi, teori praktik, teori semiotik dan teori diskursus. Hasil penelitian dapat dirinci sebagai berikut. Faktor-faktor yang mendorong dalang menampilkan fenomena hamil di luar nikah sebagai lakon dalam pertunjukannya meliputi keinginan untuk tampil beda dibandingkan dengan pertunjukan wayang kulit pada umumnya, keinginan untuk mendakwahi maraknya fenomena hamil di luar nikah khususnya di kota Denpasar, dan keinginan untuk menggugah selera penonton. Fenomena hamil di luar nikah yang ditampilkan sebagai lakon dalam pertunjukan Wayang Joblar mengisahkan tentang kehamilan di luar nikah dari tokoh wayang bernama Dewi Trijata oleh Jembawan yang menyamar sebagai Hanoman. Sang dalang melalui lakon yang ditampilkan ini memberikan jalan alternatif pemecahan persoalan hamil di luar nikah dengan lebih menekankan pada aspek tanggung jawab dan konformitas. “Hamil di luar nikah dalam pertunjukan Wayang Joblar” mencerminkan fenomena sosial yang menjadi problem sosial saat ini. Dengan membaca teks secara dekonstruktif, setidaknya dapat membaca komponen narasi untuk bisa lebih memahami kebenaran umum dan kebenaran partikular dalam teks tersebut. Pada penelitian ini, ada tiga pokok persoalan yang menarik untuk dikaji yaitu persoalan esensi dan totalitas, perempuan dan laki-laki, serta erotisme dan pornografi. Dari pengkajian penyajian fenomena hamil di luar nikah dalam lakon tersebut, ternyata tersirat lima jenis ideologi dalam tiga bentuk superioritas. Pertama, superioritas raja terhadap rakyat yang melibatkan ideologi Dewa Raja. Kedua, superioritas laki-laki terhadap perempuan yang melibatkan ideologi patriarki, ideologi seks dan ideologi gender. Ketiga, superioritas tetua terhadap kaula muda yang melibatkan ideologi patriarki dan ideologi familialisme sehingga menarik untuk didiskursuskan. “Hamil di Luar Nikah Dalam Pertunjukan Wayang Joblar”, berimplikasi sebagai hiburan dan pendidikan moralitas alternatif. Disamping itu, lakon dalam pertunjukan ini berimplikasi terhadap pengayaan bagi warna dari budaya pewayangan. Namun, pertunjukan Wayang Joblar lakon “Hamil di Luar Nikah” berdampak terhadap pengoyakan terhadap kemapanan tatanan kultural. Akan tetapi, keberadaan pertunjukan wayang ini yang mengaburkan batas di antara seni tinggi dan seni populer ternyata mampu memberikan tontonan yang menghibur sekaligus memberikan pemecahan alternatif terhadap persoalan sosial kekinian.


Kata Kunci: Hamil di Luar Nikah, Pertunjukan Wayang Joblar.


ABSTRACT

“Unexpected Pregnancy in the Performance of Wayang Joblar” is a religious proselytizing which was presented through the media of the innovative performing art of leather puppet. It was used to represent the empathy of the puppeteer towards the social phenomenon of the fact that more and more unexpected pregnancies had taken place in Denpasar City. This social phenomenon was discussed in the present study using qualitative method and was analyzed using the theory of deconstruction, the theory of practice, the theory of semiotics, and the theory of discourse. The results of the present study can be described as follows. The factors causing the puppeteer to show the phenomenon of unexpected pregnancy as the theme of the performance were the desire to perform differently from the other puppeteers who showed common themes in their performances, the desire to give a religious proselytizing that more and more unexpected pregnancies had taken place in Denpasar City, and the desire to arouse the viewers’ appetite. In the performance of Wayang Joblar it was narrated that the character Dewi Trijata was made to be unexpectedly pregnant by Jembawan who was disguised as Hanoman. Through the theme presented, the puppeteer gave some alternative solutions to the matter pertaining to unexpected pregnancy; he gave more emphasis on the aspects of responsibility and conformity. “Unexpected pregnancy in the performance of Wayang Joblar “reflected the social phenomenon as a current social problem. By reading the text in a deconstructive way, the general and specific truths of the text could be better understood; at least, the narrative components could be read. In the present study there were three problems which were worth exploring; they are the matters pertaining to essence and totality, females and males, and eroticism and pornography. From the analysis of the phenomenon of unexpected pregnancy used as the theme, it was found that there were five types of ideology in the form of three superiorities. First, the king’s superiority over his people involving the ideology of Dewa Raja; second, the male’s superiority over the female involving the patriarchal ideology, sexual ideology and gender ideology; and third, the elder’s superiority over the young involving the patriarchal ideology and the ideology of familialism; therefore, they were worth discussing. The implications of “Unexpected Pregnancy in the Performance of Wayang Joblar” were that it was a means of amusement and a means of alternative morality education. In addition, it also enriched the culture of puppetry. However, it destroyed the established cultural order. In addition, it also obscured the boundary between the real arts and the popular arts. However, the popular arts, one of which was the innovative performing art of leather puppet as described above, could amuse and give an alternative solution to the current social problem to the community.


Keywords: Unexpected Pregnancy, Performance of Wayang Job