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DETAIL THESIS

KOMODIFIKASI UPACARA NGABEN GOTONG ROYONG DI GERYA TAMANSARI LINGGA, KELURAHAN BANYUASRI KABUPATEN BULELENG


Oleh : Ni Luh Nyoman Kebayantini | kebayantini@yahoo.com
Bidang Ilmu : Kajian Budaya | Tahun Penelitian : 2010



ABSTRAK

Warga masyarakat Bali-Hindu yang terdiferensiasi ke dalam banyak hal menyebabkan sebagian dari mereka tidak dapat melaksanakan upacara ngaben secara konvensional. Menanggapi kondisi dan situasi ini berdasarkan modal budaya dan simboliknya, sulinggih Gerya Tamansari Lingga di Kelurahan Banyuasri, Kabupaten Buleleng sengaja memroduksi upacara ngaben gotong royong dan mendistribusikan secara meluas agar dapat menarik minat orang lain untuk mengonsumsi. Praktik ini menjelaskan telah terjadi komodifikasi upacara ngaben gotong royong, tujuannya adalah mencari keuntungan. Permasalahan yang dikaji dalam penelitian ini adalah sebagai berikut. (1) Bagaimana bentuk komodifikasi upacara ngaben gotong royong di Gerya Tamansari Lingga? (2) Mengapa terjadi komodifikasi upacara ngaben gotong royong di Gerya Tamansari Lingga? (3) Apa makna komodifikasi upacara ngaben gotong royong di Gerya Tamansari Lingga? Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui, memahami, dan menjelaskan bentuk, faktor penyebab, dan makna komodifikasi upacara ngaben gotong royong di Gerya Tamansari Lingga. Teori yang digunakan bersifat eklektik merupakan cara berpikir kritis yang mengacu pada teori komodifikasi, teori wacana pengetahuan/kekuasaan, teori praktik, dan teori dekonstruksi. Secara metodis penelitian ini dirancang menggunakan pendekatan kajian budaya dan metode kualitatif. Pelaksanaannya dilakukan di Gerya Tamansari Lingga, Kelurahan Banyuasri, Kabupaten Buleleng. Jenis data yang digunakan adalah data kualitatif dan kuantitatif yang diperoleh dari sumber primer dan sekunder. Data lapangan diperoleh dari informan yang dipilih secara purposif. Peneliti bertindak sebagai instrumen utama, dibantu pedoman wawancara, kamera-foto, dan alat tulis. Data lapangan dikumpulkan dengan metode dan teknik pengamatan, wawancara mendalam, life-history, dan dokumentasi. Data dianalisis dengan teknik deskriptif, kualitatif, dan interpretatif. Hasilnya disajikan secara formal dan informal. Hasil penelitian dapat dijelaskan menjadi tiga bagian besar. Pertama, bentuk komodifikasi upacara ngaben gotong royong, dipahami dari kegiatan produksi, distribusi, dan konsumsi. Berbagai sarana ngaben gotong royong diproduksi atas dasar hubungan-hubungan produksi dengan tujuan dijual. Upacara ngaben gotong royong didistribusikan melalui dharma-wacana, media elektronik, media massa cetak, dan komunikasi lisan. Konsumen tidak pernah terlibat dalam produksi. Mengonsumsi upacara ngaben gotong royong berarti telah terjadi pembentukan identitas serta mengomunikasikan kebersamaan dan kesederhanaan. Kedua, ada tiga faktor yang menyebabkan terjadinya komodifikasi upacara ngaben gotong royong, yaitu faktor habitus, faktor modal budaya dan simbolik, dan faktor ranah. Modal budaya dan simbolik yang dikuasainya sulinggih dapat merebut dan mengkonversi modal ekonomi dan modal simbolik. Ketiga, komodifikasi upacara ngaben gotong royong dimaknai beragam, yakni makna pendalaman nilai-nilai religius, pelemahan tradisi, egalitarian, efisiensi, kesejahteraan, estetis, dan makna pencitraan. Temuan baru penelitian ini adalah (1) upacara ngaben gotong royong merupakan salah satu cara dan alternatif pilihan untuk melaksanakan upacara ngaben. (2) Terjadi pergeseran teknik produksi kajang dan pangawak dari cara tradisional (manual) ke cara modern, yaitu dengan teknik sablon. (3) Kuburan (setra) sebagai kosa/sarana penunjang di Desa Pakraman Buleleng telah dikomodifikasi. (4) Terjadi kompleksitas peran sulinggih, yaitu tidak hanya sebagai pangloka palasraya dan guru loka, tetapi juga sebagai pengusaha di bidang upacara keagamaan.


Kata Kunci: komodifikasi, upacara ngaben gotong royong, gerya, dan sulinggih


ABSTRACT

Bali Hindu followers have been differentiated by so many things that many cannot perform ngaben (cremation ceremony) conventionally. As a response to this condition and situation, the sulinggih (the priest) residing at Gerya (a particular residence where the priest resides) of Taman Sari Lingga, Banyuasri Subdistrict, Buleleng Regency, based on the cultural and symbolic capital he has, has intentionally created ngaben gotong royong (mutually performed cremation ceremony) which has been so widely spread that many people have been interested in consuming it. This practice shows that a comodification, as far as the mutually performed ceremony is concerned, has taken place in order to obtain a profit. The problems explored in this study are as follows. (1) What are the forms of the comodification of the mutually-performed cremation at Gerya Tamansari Lingga?; (2) what factors leading to the comodification of the mutually-performed ceremony at Gerya Tamansari Lingga?; (3) what are the meanings of the comodification of the mutually-performed cremation ceremony at Gerya Tamansari Lingga? This study aims at identifying, understanding, and explaining the forms, the reasons, and the meanings of the comodification of the mutually performed cremation ceremony at Gerya Tamansari Lingga. The theories used in this study are eclectic in nature. It is a way of thinking which includes the theory of comodification, the theory of discourse of knowledge/power, the practical theory and the theory of deconstruction. Methodologically, this study has been planned to employ the approach of cultural studies and qualitative method. The research was conducted at Gerya Tamansari Lingga, Banyuasri Subdistrict, Bueleng Regency. The data used were the qualitative and quantitative data which were obtained from the primary and secondary sources. The field data were obtained from the informants who were purposively selected. The main instrument was the researcher supported with interview guideline, photograph-camera and writing equipment. The field data were obtained by observation, in-depth interview, life-history, and documentation. The data were analyzed descriptively, qualitatively and interpretatively. The results were formally and informally presented. The results of the study can be explained in three main parts. First, the forms of the comodification of the mutually-performed cremation ceremony are explained from how it is produced, how it is distributed and how it is consumed. Various items needed to conduct the mutually-performed cremation ceremony are produced based on production relationships for sale. The mutually-performed cremation ceremony is distributed through dharma-wacana (preaches), electronic media, printed mass media and oral communication. The consumers are never involved in the production process. Consuming the mutually performed creation ceremony means forming an identity and communicating togetherness and simplicity. Second, there are three factors leading to the comodification of the mutually performed ceremony such as habitus, cultural and symbolic capital, and domain. The cultural and symbolic capital owned by the sulinggih (the priest) competes for and wins the economic and symbolic capital. Third, The meanings of the mutually performed cremation ceremony vary, starting from the meaning of deepening the religious values, the meaning of tradition degradation, the meaning of egalitarian, the meaning of efficiency, the meaning welfare, the meaning aesthetics to the meaning of image. The novelties in this study are (1) the mutually performed cremation ceremony is one of the alternatives of how to perform cremation ceremony; (2) there has been a shift, as far as kajang and pengawak are concerned; they used to be traditionally produced but now they are produced using modern technology, that is, sablon (silk-screening); (3) the cemetery, as the kosa (the supporting means) at Buleleng Traditional Village has been comodified; (4) the process of complexity has taken place as far as the role of the sulinggih (the priest) is concerned. He has not only been a pangloka palasraya and guru loka but has also been an entrepreneur in cremation ceremony.


Keywords: comodification, mutually-performed ceremony, gerya (a particular residence where a priest resides and sulinggih (priest).