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DETAIL THESIS

KUASI KOLABORASI MASYARAKAT EKONOMI, POLITIK, DAN SIPIL DALAM PENGINVESTASIAN MODAL SOSIAL UNTUK KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN LAUT DAN PESISIR DI DESA PEMUTERAN, GEROKGAK, BULELENG, BALI


Oleh : I WAYAN MUDANA | -
Bidang Ilmu : Kajian Budaya | Tahun Penelitian : 2012



ABSTRAK

Desa Pemuteran merupakan salah satu desa yang berada di Kecamatan Gerokgak, Buleleng Bali. Desa ini memiliki wilayah laut dan pesisir yang cukup luas. Hal itu merupakan modal natural bagi masyarakat pesisir. Sejak tahun 2000 masyarakat Desa Pemuteran berupaya melestaraikan lingkungan laut dan pesisir. Proses pelestarian lingkungan laut dan pesisir melibatkan tiga kelompok masyarakat, yaitu masyarakat ekonomi, politik, dan sipil, yang menjunjung kepentingan/ideologi yang berbeda. Sehubungan dengan hal itu kajian disertasi ini difokuskan pada tiga permasalahan pokok, yaitu (1) Faktor-faktor apakah yang mendasari masyarakat ekonomi, politik, dan sipil berkolaborasi menginvestasikan modal sosial dalam rangka pelestarian lingkungan laut dan pesisir di Desa Pemuteran ? (2) Bagaimana bentuk modal sosial yang dikolaborasikan oleh masyrakat ekonomi, politik dan sipil dalam mengupayakan pelestarian lingkungan laut dan pesisir di Desa Pemuteran? (3) Bagaimana proses pendisiplinan dalam pemertahanan modal sosial untuk menjaga kelestarian lingkungan pesisir dan laut di Desa Pemuteran? Dalam mengkaji masalah tersebut teori yang digunakan adalah teori modal sosial, konstruksi sosial interpretatif, dan poststrukturalis foucaultian. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif dengan pendekatan kajian budaya. Teknik pengumpulan data meliputi observasi, wawancara mendalam, studi pustaka/dokumen. Data diolah secara deskreptif kualitatif dan disajikan dalam bentuk narasi, tabel, dan ilustrasi visual. Hasil penelitian mengungkapkan bahwa faktor-faktor yang mendasari terjdinya kolaborasi antara masyarakat ekonomi, politik, dan sipil menginvestasikan modal sosial dalam pelestarian lingkungan pesisir dan laut di Desa Pemuteran adalah didasarkan atas faktor kesadaran terhadap kondisi lingkungan alam, kecerdasan ekologis, alasan maknawi yang bersifat ekonomis, politis, sosiologis, sosialreligius, dan kebijakan pembangunan. Bentuk-bentuk modal sosial yang dikolaborasikan oleh masyrakat ekonomi, politik dan sipil dalam mengupayakan pelestarian lingkungan pesisir dan laut meliputi ideologi tri hita karana, nyegara gunung, menyama beraya, sistem kekerabatan, hubungan ketetanggaan, Desa Pakeraman, dan Desa Dinas. Modal sosial memang bermanfaat bagi kehidupan sosial, ekonomi, dan ekologi. Namun karena adanya berbagai kepentingan sehingga kolaborasi dalam menginvestasikan modal sosial untuk pelestarian bersifat kuasi. Proses pendisiplinan dalam pemertahanan modal sosial dilakukan melalui proses sosialisasi budaya dan pendisiplinan sebagai proses kontrol sosial baik secara sekala dan niskala.


Kata Kunci: Kolaborasi, Modal Sosial, Pelestarian Lingkungan, dan Desa Pemuteran


ABSTRACT

Pemuteran Village is one of the villages located in Gerokgak District, Buleleng Regency, Bali. Its marine and coastal area is wide enough. Its marine and coastal area is its natural capital. Since 2000 Pemuteran Village has done its best to preserve its marine and coastal environment. The process of involving the marine and coastal area has involved three community groups; they are the economic community, political community, and the civil community with their different ideologies/interests. In relation to that, the problems in the present study were formulated into three; they are (1) what factors caused the economic community, political community, and civil community to collaborate to invest the social capital to preserve the marine and coastal environment at Pemuteran Village? (2) What was the social capital invested by the economic community, political community and civil community to preserve the marine and coastal environment at Pemuteran Village like? (3) What was the disciplining process like in maintaining the social capital to preserve the marine and coastal environment at Pemuteran Village? The theory of social capital, the theory of interpretative social construction, and the theory of foucaultian poststructure were used to answer the problems. Qualitative research method using the approach of cultural studies was used. The data were collected through observation, in-depth interview, and library research. The data were descriptively qualitatively processed and were presented in the forms of narration, tables, and visual illustrations. The results showed that the factors contributing to the collaboration among the economic community, political community, and civil community in the investment of the social capital to preserve the marine and coastal environment at Pemuteran Village were the awareness of the environmental condition, the ecological smartness, the economic, political, sociological, and socio-religious factors, and policy on development. The forms of the social capital collaborated by the economic community, political community and civil community to preserve the coastal and marine environment included tri hita karana, nyegara gunung, menyama braya, kinship system, neighborhood relation, Desa Pekraman ( Traditional Village) and Desa Dinas (Administrative Village). It was true that the social capital was beneficial to social, economic, and ecological life. However, the different interests the economic community, the political community, and the civil community had made the collaboration in the investment of the social capital to preserve the marine and coastal environment a quasi. The disciplining in maintaining the social capital was physically and spiritually done through the process of social control.


Keywords: Collaboration, Social Capital, Environmental Preservation, and Pemuteran Village.