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KOMODIFIKASI UPACARA NGABEN DI DESA PAKRAMAN SANUR DENPASAR DALAM ERA GLOBALISASI


Oleh : IDA AYU TARY PUSPA | -
Bidang Ilmu : Kajian Budaya | Tahun Penelitian : 2011

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ABSTRAK

Penelitian ini mengkaji komodifikasi upacara ngaben di Desa Pakraman Sanur dalam era globalisasi. Penelitian ini mengangkat realitas yang empirik berkaitan dengan permasalahan komodifikasi. Adanya pengaruh arus budaya global di Sanur, implikasinya terlihat dalam praktik-praktik budaya kapitalisme, seperti munculnya Pedanda dengan modal simbolik yang dimiliki telah menciptakan arena sendiri dalam memproduksi upacara ngaben. Upacara ngaben telah mengalami komodifikasi, komersialisasi sebagai bentuk adaptif persemaian budaya global yang menghasilkan bentuk dan makna baru. Berdasarkan hal di atas, maka penelitian ini difokuskan pada pembahasan tentang (1) bentuk komodifikasi upacara ngaben di Desa Pakraman Sanur Denpasar dalam era globalisasi, (2) faktor-faktor yang menyebabkan komodifikasi upacara ngaben di Desa Pakraman Sanur Denpasar dalam era globalisasi, dan (3) dampak dan makna komodifikasi upacara ngaben di Desa Pakraman Sanur Denpasar dalam era globalisasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui, memahami, dan menjelaskan bentuk, faktor, dan dampak serta makna komodifikasi upacara ngaben di Desa Pakraman Sanur Denpasar dalam era globalisasi. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif, yang bertujuan untuk memahami serta menganalisis komodifikasi upacara ngaben, dengan pendekatan kajian budaya yang bersifat kritis, interdisipliner, dan multidimensional. Data dalam penelitian ini diperoleh melalui observasi, wawancara, life history, dan studi dokumen. Informan ditentukan secara purposive. Peneliti bertindak sebagai instrumen utama dibantu pedoman wawancara, kamera, dan alat tulis Setelah dilakukan verifikasi, data dianalisis dengan beberapa teori yang relevan seperti teori komodifikasi, teori hegemoni, teori praktik, dan teori dekonstruksi. Data dianalisis dengan teknik deskriptif kualitatif dan interpretatif. Hasilnya disajikan secara formal dan informal Hasil penelitian diberikan di bawah ini. (1) Bentuk komodifikasi mengarah pada upacara ngaben yang dikemas dalam produk, distribusi, dan dikonsumsi oleh konsumen. Berbagai sarana upacara ngaben diproduksi berdasarkan hubungan-hubungan produksi dengan tujuan dijual. Upacara ngaben didistribusikan melalui media cetak, dharma wacana, dan komunikasi lisan. Dalam komodifikasi upacara ngaben yaitu ngaben ngiring konsumen ikut terlibat dalam proses produksi karena konsumen ikut ngayah di Griya. Dengan demikian akan muncul pembentukan identitas kebersamaan. Budaya global yang kapitalis telah ditangkap oleh para Pedanda di Sanur untuk meraih peluang dengan mengemas produk atau pun paket upacara ngaben. Konsumen baik itu sisya maupun umat Hindu secara umum dapat memesan paket upacara ngaben dengan menyerahkan sejumlah uang. (2) Faktor-faktor penyebab komodifikasi adalah berbagai faktor yang terdiri atas politik (kuasa pengetahuan), globalisasi, dan nilai budaya. Dalam faktor politik (kuasa pengetahuan) akan diuraikan tentang masyarakat pendukung, hubungan Siwa sisya, dan kekuasaan. Dalam faktor globalisasi akan diuraikan ekonomi pasar, modal, dan budaya konsumen. Dalam faktor nilai budaya akan diuraikan tentang konstruksi identitas kebalian, pemujaan leluhur, dan Pedanda sebagai “anak lingsir”. Semua faktor tersebut telah menyebabkan masyarakat di Desa Pakraman Sanur mengalami perubahan karena budaya global telah menyebabkan mereka bersikap pragmatis dan mengedepankan uang dengan membeli komoditas upacara ngaben. (3) Dampak komodifikasi upacara ngaben di Desa Pakraman Sanur adalah dampak pragmatisme, merenggangnya hubungan sosial/melemahnya tradisi, dan kesejahteraan sedangkan makna komodifikasi upacara ngaben di Desa Pakraman Sanur dalam era globalisasi adalah makna efisiensi, pencitraan, dinamika perubahan nilai, dan religius. Upacara ngaben bukan hanya dimaknai secara religius yakni adanya sradha dan bhakti sebagai pengembalian unsur panca maha butha kepada alam semesta, tetapi memiliki pula makna, makna efisiensi yang penuh dengan perhitungan baik bagi konsumen maupun produsen agar mendapat keuntungan dari komodifikasi upacara ngaben tersebut dan makna pencitraan yang memberikan image bagi konsumen karena telah mampu melaksanakan upacara ngaben. Temuan baru penelitian ini dijelaskan di bawah ini. Komodifikasi upacara ngaben bukan hanya melibatkan upakara berupa banten, kajang, wadah/patulangan, patunon, dan nganyut, tetapi melibatkan pula pihak terkait seperti sulinggih, sarati, dan pecalang. Adanya kompleksitas peran sulinggih sebagai pengusaha bukan hanya ngelokapalasraya dan Acarya bahkan dengan menjual banten Pedanda telah beralih profesi dari Brahmana Warna ke Waisya Warna karena telah tidak sesuai dengan sesana tan wenang adol atuku.


Kata Kunci: komodifikasi, upacara ngaben, era globalisasi.


ABSTRACT

In this study comodification of the ngaben (cremation) ceremony conducted at Sanur Traditional Village in globalization era is discussed. This means that an empirical reality related to the matters pertaining to comodification is discussed in this study. The implication of the global cultural influences can be observed from the practices of capitalistic culture. This can be illustrated by the fact that there is a Pedanda (a priest coming from the Brahmin family) who has created an arena where he can conduct the ngaben (cremation) ceremony with the symbolic capital he has. The ngaben ceremony has been comodified and commercialized as an adaptation to the global culture resulting in a new form and a new meaning. Based on what has been described above, this study is focused on (1) the form of comodification of the ngaben ceremony conducted at Sanur Traditional Village, Denpasar, in the globalization era; (2) the factors contributing to the comodification of the ngaben ceremony conducted at Sanur Traditional Village, Denpasar in the globalization era; and (3) the effects and meanings of the comodification of the ngaben ceremony conducted at Sanur Traditional Village in the globalization era. This study aims at identifying, understanding and explaining the forms of the comodification of the ngaben ceremony conducted at Sanur Traditional Village in the globalization era, and its effects and meanings. Qualitative method with the critical, interdisciplinary and multidimensional approach of cultural studies is used in this study. The objectives are to understand and analyze the ngaben (cremation) ceremony. The data needed in this study were obtained through observation, in-depth interview, life history and library research. The informants interviewed were determined in a purposive manner. The main instrument was the researcher herself supported by an interview guide, a camera and writing equipment. After the data were verified, the data were analyzed using several relevant theories such as the theory of comodification, the theory of hegemony, the theory of practice, and the theory of deconstruction. The data were descriptively, qualitatively and interpretatively analyzed. The results were formally and informally presented. The results of the study are as follows. (1) The comodification of the ngaben ceremony was packaged in the form of a product which is distributed and consumed by consumers. Many things needed for it were produced for sales based on the production relationships. It was distributed through printed mass media, dharma wacana (sermon), and other oral means of communication. In what is referred to as ngaben ngiring (the ngaben ceremony in which the corpse of a pedanda is cremated), the consumers were involved in the production process; in other words, they also took part in the production process at what is called ‘griya’ (a residence where the priest coming from the Brahmin family ‘pedanda’ and his family live). In this way, the identity of being together was formed. The capitalistic global culture has been adapted by the pendada by packaging the product, namely, the ngaben ceremony; otherwise, he would miss the opportunity. The consumers, the sisya (the clients) as well as the Hindu followers in general, may order the packaged ngaben ceremony by submitting a sum of money. (2) The factors which contributed to the comodification of the ngaben ceremony were politics (the power of knowledge), globalization and cultural values. As far as the political factor is concerned, the supporting community, the domain and the Brahmin family as the center of power would be discussed; as far as the globalization factor is concerned, economy, capital and consumer culture would be discussed; and as far as the cultural value is concerned, the construction of the Balinese identity, the anchestor worship and the ‘Pedanda’ as the patron ‘orang ling sir’) would be discussed. Such factors caused the people living at Sanur Traditional Village to change; the global culture caused them to be pragmatic and to buy the commodity, which is, in this case, the ngaben ceremony. (3) The effects of the comodification of the ngaben ceremony conducted at Sanur Traditional Village were that the people became pragmatic; weaker social relationship/tradition; economic improvement. The meanings of the ngaben ceremony conducted at Sanur Traditional Village were efficiency, image, the dynamism of change in value, and religious enhancement. The ngaben ceremony did not only mean religious enhancement referred to as sradha and bhakti (devotion); the process of causing what is referred to as panca maha butha to become back to the universe (the macrocosmos), but also meant efficiency. What is meant is that both the producer and the consumers made such a calculation that the comodification of the ngaben ceremony would benefit them. In addition, the comodification of the ngaben ceremony also meant ‘image’, meaning that the consumers would like to show that they had the ability to carry it out. The novelties of the study are explained as follows. The comodification of the ngaben (cremation) ceremony did not only involve upakara (ritual) in the form of bebantenan (offerings), kajang (the activity of going to the cemetery), but also wadah/patulangan (the tower used to carry the corpse to the cemetery), and involved the related parties such as sulinggih (the priest), the sarati (the woman who is responsible for the offering production), the pecalang (the security appointed by the traditional village), patunon (the cremating activity) and nganyut (going to the beach to wash the ash away). The sulinggih (the priest) has complex roles; on one hand, he/she plays his/her role as ngelokapalasraya and Acarya and on the other hand, he/she pays his/her role as a trader selling banten (offerings). This means that he/she has changed his/her profession from being Brahmana warna (having profession as a priest) into being Waisya Warna (having profession as a trader), contrasting with what is referred to as sesana tan wenang adol atuku.


Keywords: comodification, ngaben (cremation) ceremony, globalization era